The London-listed firm said in a trading update that earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation (EBITDA) increased to a record USD 895.4 million in the three months to end-December from USD 662.5 million a year ago.
Sales rose 44 percent to USD 3.077 billion.
Third-quarter output of refined zinc, Vedanta's most profitable product, rose 20 percent to 178,000 tonnes, helped by the acquisition of Anglo's Skorpion mine in Namibia.
Production of iron ore dipped 2 percent to 5.3 million tonnes and sales were hit by a monsoon and transport problems.
In November, Vendata posted an 81 percent jump in first half earnings per share and said it was working on possible listings of its energy and Zambian copper units.