Countries which have tried cash transfers
Many countries have experimented with cash transfers to improve social, economic and health indicators of their citizens:
Brazil has used the direct cash transfer to improve access of food, schools and health institutions to the very poor. A study by United Nations Development Fund in 2006 reflected the improvement in educational and health indicators of poor in Brazil because of conditionalities linked with cash transfer. A recent World Health Organisation study in cash transfer municipalities of Brazil found cash transfer helped the government to reduce the fertility rate resulting in better health of lesser number of children per family.
The Ministry of Social Solidarity, with assistance from a team of American University in Cairo researchers, plans to introduce Conditional Cash Transfers (CCT) in Egypt, a type of welfare programme that makes subsidy payments conditional on certain behaviour. CCT welfare programmes aim to reduce long-term poverty through subsidy schemes that are conditional upon receivers' actions--such as sending children to school and regularly visiting doctors.
In 2005, an Unconditional Cash Transfer for the poor (19.2 million poor and near-poor households) was piloted to compensate for increased fuel prices.
In January 2007, the government of Philippines implemented a pilot conditional cash transfer programme in 20 districts, spread throughout the country. Run by the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), the programme transfers an amount equivalent to $33-35 per month to each of the chosen families.
There are several food transfer programmes, though the country is focusing its attention on cash transfers, mainly conditional in the education area. Bangladesh has many programmes but no overarching framework.