Zee Research Group/ Delhi
Gender Budgeting was introduced by the government in 2005-06 in order to ensure that policy commitments are backed by financial outlays and that the gender perspective is incorporated in all stages of a policy or a programme. The objectives of Gender Budgeting are for committing to initiatives with the objective of influencing and effecting a change in the Ministries’ policies, programmes in a way that could tackle gender imbalances, promote gender equality and development and ensure that public resources through the Ministries’ budgets are allocated and managed accordingly.Expectations wrt Gender Budgeting in 2013-14 Budget
• The methodology adopted by the Union ministries for reporting in the Gender Budgeting Statement (GBS) needs to be reviewed thoroughly.
• The assumptions underlying the different proportions of budget allocations for schemes being reported in the GB Statement (i.e. the Part B of the Statement) need to be explained through a narrative statement, which should also document the policy measures adopted by each and every Union ministry towards addressing the gender-based disadvantages of women and girl children in their sector(s) of concern. (Part B enlists those schemes with at least 30 percent but not the entire amount of funds earmarked for women and girls )
Source: CBGA Part A: Details about gender budgeting
The first attempt of the government to ensure a definite flow of funds to women was the introduction of a Women’s Component Plan (WCP) in the 9th Five Year Plan whereby all Ministries/Departments were directed to ensure at least 33 percent funds for women. However, recognising the sluggish performance of WCP across sectors, the practice was discontinued in 2010-11.
• The Union Government institutionalized Gender Budgeting by introducing a Gender Budget Statement (GBS) in 2005-06. The GBS captures the total quantum of resources earmarked for women in a financial year.
• The information is presented in two parts –Part A reflects those schemes in which 100 per cent funds are meant for women and girls and Part B enlists those with at least 30 percent but not the entire amount of funds earmarked for women and girls.Part B: Progress thereafter
• While the concept of Gender Budgeting in India is relatively new, it is still important to take stock of the developments so far with regard to the scope and format of the GBS.
• The coverage of “Gender Budgeting Statement” in terms of the number of Union Government ministries/departments reporting in the Gender Budgeting Statement remains stagnant at 33 for the sixth consecutive year.
• No steps have been taken to review the format of the Gender Budgeting Statement. The total magnitude of the Gender Budget has declined from 6.2 percent (2010-11 BE) to 5.8 percent (2011-12 RE). Further, there is marginal increase of 0.1 percent in 2012-13 over the previous year.Part C: Allocation Vs Expenditure (Major Schemes of Ministry of Women and Child Development)
Part D: Summary of the allocations for Women as presented in the Gender Budget Statement
| Schemes|| Details about the scheme||Allocation made in the year 11-12 RE (Rupees in crore)||Allocation made in the year 2010-11 BE (Rupees in crore)|| Expenditure up to 29/02/2012(Rupees in crore)|| Actual Expenditure up to 15/1/11(Rupees in crore)|| Per centage of Expenditure over RE (11-12)|| Per centage of Expenditure over BE (10-11) |
| Support to training and Employment Programe for women (STEP)|| (STEP) was launched in 1986 as one of the measures to ensure well being of women in the traditional informal sector.The programme of STEP advocates the objective of extending training for up gradation of skills and sustainable employment for women through avariety of action oriented projects which employ women in large numbers||11.5||25||1.2||10.79||10.47||43.15|
|Hostel for working women||The Government of India being concerned about the difficulties faced by such working women, introduced a scheme in 1972-73 of grant-in aid for construction of new/ expansion of existing buildings for providing hostel facilities to working women in cities, smaller towns and also in rural areas where employment opportunities for women exist.||4.9||15||0.4||5.8||8.14||38.67|
| Swadhar Scheme||In 2001-02, the Government launched a scheme called Swadhar which seeks to rehabilitate women in difficult circumstances like destitute and deserted women, women ex-prisoners, victims of sexual abuse and crime including those trafficked and rescued from brothels, migrants or refugee women who have been rendered homeless due to natural calamities like flood, cyclone, earthquake, mentally challenged women, victims of widows deserted by their families and relatives near religious places etc.||30||34.2||12.05||24.62||40.17||69.04|
|Relief to and rehabilitation of Rape Victims||The Scheme for Relief and Rehabilitation of Victims of Rape, 2005 envisions a board to decide compensation for victims and psychological and medical aid.||45.5||40||0||0||0||0|
| Rashtriya Mahila Kosh|| It was setup on 30.03.1993. The objective was to promote or undertake activities for the promotion of or to provide credit as an instrument of socio- economic change and development through the provision of a package of financial and social development services for the development of women.||100||15||0||0||0||0|
| Year ||No. of Demands*||Total Allocations under Part A of the the Statement** (in Rs. Crore)||Total Allocations under Part B of the statement ***(in Rs. Crore)||Total magnitude of Gender Budget (in Rs. Crore)|
|2007-08 (RE)||33||8,428.66||13,919.43 ||22,348.09 (3.3%) |
|2008-09 (RE)||33||14,875.15||34,748.20||49,623.35 (5.5%) |
|2009-10 (RE)||33||15,480.85||40,813.27||56,294.22 (5.5%) |
|2010-11 (RE)||33||18473. 30||48601.38||67074.68 (5.5%) |
|2011-12 (RE)||33||20496.57||56449.52||76946.09 (5.8%) |
|2012-13 (BE)||33||22968.93||65173.87||88142.8 (5.9%)|
- Notes: *Those that report in the Gender Budgeting Statement.
- ** Part A presents women specific provisions where 100per cent provisions are for women.
- ***Part B presents women specific provisions under schemes with at least 30per cent provisions for women.
- **** Proportion of total Union Government Expenditure, shown in brackets.
Source: Gender Budgeting Statement, Expenditure Budget Vol. I, Union Budget - various years Part E: Gender budgeting, still a far way for people to realise the worth of women.
| Key points depicting the dismal situation of women in India|
- All India sex ratio according to the 2011 Census data is 940
- Female literacy rate stands at 65.46 per cent respectively. However, male literacy rate stands at 82.4 per cent respectively.
- Only 17.9 per cent of women in urban areas are in the labor force as against 73.3 per cent of men. The rate of female urban unemployment is as high as 12.5 per cent as against 3.4 per cent for urban males.
- Urban woman laborers trailed behind their male counterparts with men getting an average wage of Rs 377 as against Rs 309 for women for the same kind of work executed.
- Rural women receive an average salary of Rs 156 while men get Rs 249, indicating the female-male wage ratio of 0.63.