India Country Stand
  • India – the third biggest emitter of CO2 - has voluntarily, conditionally agreed to reduce the intensity of it emissions by 20-25% of its 2005 levels by 2020
  • BASIC group – India, China, Brazil and South Africa – want Kyoto Protocol extension
  • BASIC opposed to a single, legally binding agreement
  • BASIC for West to increase financial and technological assistance to developing nations
  • India wants discussions to focus on equity, IPR and trade. Other BASIC nations, Argentina heading the G77 grouping, Grenada on behalf of small island states and Egypt representing Arab countries, have fully backed India’s stand
  • BASIC nations would not carbon trade with those developed countries which refuse to commit to targets under the second phase of Kyoto Protocol
  • The United States is the world’s second biggest emitter of gases that cause global warming.
  • The US has conditionally pledged to reduce carbon emissions by 17 per cent by 2020 from 2005 levels
  • US is opposed to a single, legally binding treaty
  • US is not ready to agree to any deal without China
  • US is also the only big emitter to have ratified the Kyoto Protocol.
  • China is world’s biggest emitter of greenhouse gases
  • China to voluntarily check growth of its carbon emissions
  • China won’t agree to any new agreement unless the US does the same
  • In the framework of Kyoto talks, China argues for being counted as developing nation
  • China has become the world's number one country in terms of registered Clean Development Mechanism projects since the scheme's launch in 2005
  • The EU has pledged independent quantified economy-wide emission reduction target of 20 per cent by 2020 compared with 1990 levels
  • The EU is committed to limiting the increase in global average temperature to below 2 degree Celsius above pre-industrial levels
  • The EU is not willing to agree to a deal without the US
  • The EU and the US want developing world, especially BASIC nations, to undertake legally binding carbon emission reduction targets
  • The EU has expressed willingness to a conditional second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol
Small Islands  
  • Among all stakeholders in climate talks, small islands face the most daunting challenges of rising sea levels, escalating temperatures, drought and coastal erosion
  • Small islands’ economies are mostly tourism-base and erosion of beaches due to climate change effects would reduce the tourism value of such locations and affect local resources such as fishing
  • Association of Small Island States (AOSIS) supports EU stand of a single, legally binding treaty on emission reduction
  • 42-member AOSIS wants immediate adoption of a new international agreement and strongly opposes its delay until 2018 or 2020 as sought by countries such as Japan and Russia
  • Small islands are seeking clarity on how developed world would raise money in the period between 2012 and 2020 towards operation of the Green Climate Fund
Other Nations  
  • Russia is ready for a conditional 15–25 per cent emission reduction by 2020 compared with 1990 levels
  • Japan has pledged conditional 25 per cent emission reduction by 2020 compared with 1990 levels
  • Canada to reduce emissions by 17 per cent by 2020 compared with 2005 levels, but the same would be aligned with US
  • Japan, Russia and Canada are opposed to any new deal or a second commitment period under Kyoto Protocol unless the biggest emitters do the same
  • Australia has pledged to unconditionally reduce carbon emissions by 5 per cent by 2020 from 2000 levels
  • New Zealand willing to take on an emission reduction target of between 10 and 20 per cent below 1990 levels by 2020, provided a comprehensive global agreement is reached
  • Less industrialised countries want binding commitment from major-polluting nations to reduce emissions
  • Developing nations say Kyoto must first be extended and with new targets for rich nations covered by the pact
  Compiled By: Deepak Nagpal
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