New Delhi: Tokyo has once again topped the list of The Economist's Safe Cities Index 2017 while Delhi and Mumbai ranked 43rd and 45th respectively.
The index, produced by The Economist Intelligence Unit, was based on 49 indicators covering digital, health, infrastructure and personal security.
Of the 10 cities at the bottom of the index, two are in South Asia (Dhaka and Karachi), three in South-east Asia (Manila, Ho Chi Minh City and Jakarta) and two in the Middle East and Africa (Cairo and Tehran), The Economist said.
In 2016, there were 31 megacities, each having more than 10 million people. And that figure is projected to rise to 41 million by 2030, the study said.
“While cities generate economic activity, the security challenges they face expand and intensify as their populations rise,” Chris Clague, who edited the report 'Safe Cities Index 2017: Security in a Rapidly Urbanising World', noted.
The study also took into account the 'growing' terrorism risks faced by the people in the world capitals.
It cited recent terror attacks in London, Paris and Barcelona and said the wealthy urban centres are increasingly becoming targets of terrorists.
The study also noted income disparities and growing inequalities among people which can trigger 'violent outbursts such as the 2011 London riots'.
The index has retained four security categories from the 2015 version and added six new indicators. It has also been expanded to cover 60 cities, up from 50 in 2015.
Though Japan has fallen out of the top ten, to 12th in infrastructure security, it has managed to retain the overall ranking for the third consecutive year.
Tokyo's strongest performance is in the digital security category and it has risen seven points in the health security category, the report said.
No US city has made it to the top 10 in the security category and only San Francisco appeared in the top 20. The top 10 cities in this category are Madrid, Barcelona, Stockholm, Amsterdam, Zurich, Singapore, Wellington, Hong Kong, Melbourne and Sydney.
However, the US performed well in digital safety. Of the cities in the top in this category, four are from the US (Chicago, San Francisco, New York and Dallas).
Asia, the Middle East and Africa dominated the bottom of the index.