London: Past 200 years of human activities
have led to the extinction of nearly 500 species of plants and
animals in Britain, the first comprehensive audit of native
wildlife in the country has found.
The disappearance include four species that did not exist
anywhere in the world, said the study carried out by Natural
England, a government advisory body.
The great auk, a flightless seabird similar to a penguin,
Ivell`s sea anemone, Mitten`s beardless-moss and York
groundsel, a weed, have all become extinct since 1800.
"These species were lost on our watch. In the late 1980s
the last Ivell`s anemone died out in a lagoon near
Chichester," Dr Tom Tew, chief scientist for Natural England,
was quoted as saying by `The Times`.
"Extinction rates are 1,000 times higher than natural
background rate indicated by the fossil record.
"This time it isn`t being driven by a meteorite hitting
earth or a natural catastrophe, but by human activities."
According to the report, based on an extensive survey of
records and specimens dating back 2,000 years, all but 12 of
the 492 species to vanish were lost after 1800.
This was attributed in part to the scarcity of records in
pre-Victorian times, but also to increased hunting and
fishing, loss of habitat to farming, and climate change, the
"Extinction rates are very high and it`s predominantly
down to changes in land use," said Prof Kathy Willis, a
long-term ecologist at the University of Oxford.
Other ecologists said, however, that it was not valid to
compare recent events in England with fossil evidence, which
represented longer timescales and was not as geographically
The report titled `Lost Life: England`s Lost and
Threatened Species` showed that the geographical ranges of
many species were being reduced to isolated spots, meaning
that children would not experience the same diversity of
wildlife as their grandparents.
However, the report offered encouragement, suggesting
that conservation efforts, when employed, had been effective.
Dr Jane Smart, director of the biodiversity group at the
International Union for the Conservation of Nature, said: "We
need to scale up and mainstream conservation work."