Washington: Depression, anxiety, and smoking have a negative impact on the bone accrual of adolescent girls and may become a red flag for a future constrained by low bone mass or osteoporosis and higher fracture rates in postmenopausal years, researchers say.Meta-analyses have shown that adult depression is associated with osteoporosis and lower bone mineral density (BMD). Smoking also has a negative impact on bone health, with adult smokers having lower BMD compared to nonsmokers, likely increasing lifetime fracture risk by as much as 31 percent.Depression and anxiety increase in adolescence, particularly in girls, and smoking and alcohol use are often initiated at this time. Both depression and substance use often become chronic after adolescence. There is however a dearth of information on whether these factors affect bone accrual in adolescence.
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