Washington DC: Turns out, hookah isn't that safe as a new study has suggested that even light waterpipe smoking harms lungs.
Ronald Crystal from Weill Cornell Medicine and colleagues assessed the effects of waterpipe smoking on study participants using clinical and biological parameters.
The clinical data showed that, compared to nonsmokers, waterpipe smokers coughed more frequently and produced more sputum.
Biological changes were observed in "marked changes in the cells lining the airways" of waterpipe smokers. In addition, the researchers noted an increase in the circulation of small particles shed by endothelial cells in the lungs.
"This is indicative of ongoing damage to the capillaries," said Dr. Crystal. Together, the clinical and biological changes associated with light-waterpipe use are signs of early lung damage.
The authors wrote that compared to one cigarette, one waterpipe session exposes the smoker to 2 to 4 times the amount of nicotine; 7 to 11 times the amount of carbon monoxide; 100 times more tar; 17 times the amount of formaldehyde; 2 to 5 times the amount of high molecular weight carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons; and 3 times the amount of phenol.
"This is a small study, but our study results justify initiating large epidemiologic studies to further assess the harmful effects of waterpipe smoking," said Dr. Crystal. "It is uncontrolled - there are no regulations pertaining to its use - and the data raises red flags that even limited use may cause lung damage."
The study is published in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.