Washington: Manipulating a group of hormone-producing cells in the brain can control blood sugar levels in the body, a new study has revealed.
This has dramatic potential for research into weight-loss drugs and diabetes treatment.
The new study examines how fruit flies (Drosophila) react when confronted with a decreased diet.
Reduced diet or starvation normally leads to hyperactivity in fruit flies – a hungry fly buzzes around feverishly, looking for more food. That happens because an enzyme called AMP-activated kinase stimulates the secretion of the adipokinetic hormone, which is the functional equivalent of glucagon.
This hormone acts opposite of insulin, as it tells the body to release the sugar, or food, needed to fuel that hyperacti`
vity. The body uses up its energy stores until it finds food.
But when Wake Forest’s Erik Johnson, an associate professor of biology, and his research team turned off AMP-activated kinase, the cells decreased sugar release and the hyperactive response stopped almost completely – even in the face of starvation.
“Since fruit flies and humans share 30 percent of the same genes and our brains are essentially wired the same way, it suggests that this discovery could inform metabolic research in general and diabetes research specifically,” Johnson, the study’s principal investigator, said.
“The basic biophysical, biochemical makeup is the same. The difference in complexity is in the number of cells. Why flies are so simple is that they have approximately 100,000 neurons versus the approximately 11 billion in humans,” he said.
The study has been published in Genetics.