Washington: US should "publicly expose" Pakistan whenever it fails to prevent infiltration across the LoC with India, shut down jihadi training operations and hold the ISI and Pakistani military to pledge that "they will not
abet violent actors" in Kashmir, a US think-tank has said.
Releasing a report on Indo-US relations ahead of
President Barack Obama`s visit, the Carnegie Endowment for
International Peace said Kashmir issue is a challenge that the
US can neither avoid nor resolve as New Delhi has the power to
"rebuff" and unwelcome US involvement.
"Washington can do more than it typically has to hold
the Pakistani military and the ISI to pledges that they will
not abet violent actors in Kashmir," the report `Toward
Realistic US-India Relations` said.
"At a minimum, the United States should expose
Pakistan publicly whenever it fails to act to prevent
infiltrations across the Line of Control, shut down jihadi
training operations, or arrest leaders of organizations that
foment attacks on India," the report authored by George
At the same time, the report said, Indian leaders must
also do "more to correct the mis-governance and human rights
abuses that are remobilising Muslims in the Kashmir Valley."
"Indians may reasonably expect the US to heed to their
demand not to try to mediate the Kashmir issue with Pakistan,
but they should not expect it to stay silent about large-scale
Indian human rights violations or other policies that
undermine conflict resolution there," the report said.
US has legitimate strategic interests in urging both
India and Pakistan to explore all prospects for normalising
Indo?Pak relations and reducing the threat of violent
extremism in South Asia and elsewhere, the report said.
It said Pakistani elites are adapting to the reality
that their country cannot wrest the Valley away from India
and that it must negotiate a formula to recognise the
territorial status quo and improve the quality of life of
Kashmiris on both sides of the Line of Control.
Many Pakistanis recognise further that Indian Prime
Minister Manmohan Singh is the leader best suited to find and
deliver a package that Indians, Kashmiris, and Pakistanis
could live with, the report said.
"But if Pakistanis perceive that resolving the
Kashmir issue will merely make the environment safer for India
to bolster its conventional military advantage over Pakistan,
they will balk," the report said.
"This is another reason that the United States and
India must take great care to manage their defense cooperation
in ways that reassure Pakistan that India`s aims and
capabilities are defensive, not offensive. Conventional
military dialogue and confidence-building measures deserve
greater attention for this purpose," it said.
The report said one reason why Pakistanis are turning
their attention away from Kashmir is that many see Afghanistan
as the hotter front for Indo-Pak competition.
"Pakistanis, especially the military, perceive an
Indian effort to extend influence throughout Afghanistan at
Pakistan`s expense. Pakistan has fought this influence in many
ways, including attacks on the Indian embassy and other
targets in Afghanistan," the report said.
Observing that the US is caught in the middle, the
report said Pakistan demands that Washington use its influence
on its "new best friend" India not to use Afghanistan as the western side of a vise to squeeze Pakistan.
"India demands that the United States fight the
Pakistani-backed Taliban more robustly and eschew temptations
to negotiate with the Taliban. India is particularly emphatic
about Pakistan`s not being granted a seat in any possible
negotiations," it said.
"Pakistan is willing to fight until the last Taliban
or coalition foot soldier falls in order to pursue its
interests in Afghanistan, while India is willing to fight to
the last American to keep Pakistan from exerting indirect
control over a future Afghan government," the report said.