India and the United States: Partnership for a better world
Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh and President Barack Obama on Wednesday reaffirmed the global strategic partnership between India and the United States, and launched a new phase in this partnership. Commending the deepening bilateral cooperation between the world`s two largest democracies across a broad spectrum of human endeavours, the two leaders recognised that the common ideals and complementary strengths of India and the United States today provide a foundation for addressing the global challenges of the 21st century.
The two leaders noted that the shared values cherished by their peoples and espoused by their founders – democracy,
pluralism, tolerance, openness, and respect for fundamental
freedoms and human rights – are acquiring an increasingly
greater prominence in building a more peaceful, prosperous,
inclusive, secure and sustainable world. These values are
exemplified by the vibrant linkages between their peoples,
which are a unique asset for both countries, and are reflected
in the role played by the Indian-American community.
The two leaders resolved to harness these shared
strengths and to expand the US-India global partnership for
the benefit of their countries, for peace, stability and
prosperity in Asia, and for the betterment of the world. To
this end, they committed to build upon the India-US Strategic
Dialogue announced in July 2009. President Obama stated that
the United States looks forward to a stable and prosperous
India playing an increasingly important role in world affairs.
Prime Minister Singh and President Obama recognised that
the India-US partnership is indispensable for global peace and
security. In this context, the interests of both countries are
best advanced through the values mirrored in their societies.
They acknowledged the common threat that international
terrorism poses to regional and global security. They
condemned terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and
declared that there could be no justification for terrorism
On the eve of its first anniversary, President Obama
reiterated the United States`s condemnation of the terrorist
attack in Mumbai in November 2008. The two leaders underscored
the absolute imperative to bring to justice the perpetrators
of this terrorist attack.
They expressed their grave concern about the threat posed
by terrorism and violent extremists emanating from India`s
neighbourhood, whose impact is felt beyond the region. The two
leaders agreed that resolute and credible steps must be taken
to eliminate safe havens and sanctuaries that provide shelter
to terrorists and their activities. These undermine security
and stability in the region and around the world.
They vowed to redouble their efforts to deal effectively
with terrorism, while protecting their countries` common
ideals and shared values and committed themselves to
strengthening global consensus and legal regimes against
terrorism. They decided on a Counter-terrorism Cooperation
Initiative to expand collaboration on counter-terrorism,
information sharing, and capacity building.
The two leaders reiterated their shared interest in the
stability, development and independence of Afghanistan and in
the defeat of terrorist safe havens in Pakistan and
Afghanistan. President Obama appreciated India`s role in
reconstruction and rebuilding efforts in Afghanistan. The two
leaders agreed to enhance their respective efforts in this
The two leaders committed to continue pursuing mutually
beneficial defence cooperation through the existing security
dialogue, service-level exchanges, defence exercises and trade
and technology transfer and collaboration. They recognised the
scope for cooperation in the areas of non-traditional threats
to security, peacekeeping, humanitarian and disaster relief,
and maritime security and protecting sea lanes of
communication. They agreed to expedite necessary arrangements
to facilitate these activities.
The two leaders agreed that strengthening high technology
trade between their countries is in the spirit of their
strategic dialogue and partnership. They reiterated their
shared commitment to technology security and that it is in
their mutual interest to invigorate this area of their
Prime Minister Singh and President Obama reaffirmed their
shared vision of a world free of nuclear weapons and pledged
to work together, as leaders of responsible states with
advanced nuclear technology, for global non-proliferation, and
universal, non-discriminatory and complete nuclear
Part of that vision is working together to ensure that
all nations live up to their international obligations. India
reaffirmed its unilateral and voluntary moratorium on nuclear
explosive testing. The United States reaffirmed its testing
moratorium and its commitment to ratify the Comprehensive Test
Ban Treaty and bring it into force at an early date.
Both leaders agreed to consult each other regularly and
seek the early start of negotiations on a multilateral,
non-discriminatory and internationally verifiable Fissile
Material Cutoff Treaty at the Conference on Disarmament. They
noted that nuclear terrorism, and clandestine networks are a
matter of grave concern. Prime Minister Singh and President
Obama look forward to the April 2010 Nuclear Security Summit
and working together with all participating states for the
success of the Summit.
Ensuring sustainable global development and a clean energy future
Recognising that energy security, food security, climate
change are interlinked, and that eliminating poverty and
ensuring sustainable development and a clean energy future are
among the foremost global objectives, the two leaders agreed
to enter into a Green Partnership to address these global
The two Leaders reaffirmed their intention to promote the
full, effective and sustained implementation of the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in
accordance with the Bali Action Plan.
Recognising their special role in promoting a successful
and substantive outcome at the UNFCCC 15th Conference of
Parties at Copenhagen in December, 2009, they reaffirmed their
intention to work together bilaterally and with all other
countries for an agreed outcome at that meeting.
The two leaders also affirmed that the Copenhagen outcome
must be comprehensive and cover mitigation, adaptation,
finance and technology, and in accordance with the principle
of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective
capabilities, it should reflect emission reduction targets of
developed countries and nationally appropriate mitigation
actions of developing countries.
There should be full transparency through appropriate
processes as to the implementation of aforesaid mitigation
actions. The outcome should further reflect the need for
substantially scaled-up financial resources to support
mitigation and adaptation in developing countries, in
particular, for the poorest and most vulnerable.
It should also include measures for promoting technology
development, dissemination and transfer and capacity building,
including consideration of a centre or a network of centres to
support and stimulate climate innovation. India and the United
States, consistent with their national circumstances, resolved
to take significant national mitigation actions that will
strengthen the world`s ability to combat climate change. They
resolved to stand by these commitments.
Recognising the need to create the clean energy economy
of the 21st century, Prime Minister Singh and President Obama
agreed to launch a Clean Energy and Climate Change Initiative.
The goal of the Initiative would be to improve the lives
of the people of both countries by developing and improving
access to technologies that make our energy cleaner,
affordable and more efficient. The Initiative will include
cooperation in wind and solar energy, second generation
bio-fuels, unconventional gas, energy efficiency, and clean
coal technologies including carbon capture and storage. The
success of this Initiative is expected to enhance the ability
of India and the United States to provide new economic
opportunities for their people and create new clean energy
The two leaders intend to take practical steps to promote
global food security, including by advancing the L`Aquila Food
Security Initiative. They looked forward to increasing
India-US agricultural cooperation with the purpose of
promoting agricultural research, human resources capacity
building, natural resource management, agri-business and food
processing, and collaborative research for increasing food
productivity. This cooperation would contribute to joint
development of technology that would improve weather
forecasting, including predicting monsoons, and technology
that would contribute to food productivity and food security
efforts in India.
They agreed to collaborate in the application of their
space technology and related scientific capabilities in outer
space and for development purposes, including in the field of
The two leaders reiterated their intention to realise the
full potential of the India-U.S. Agreement for Cooperation
concerning the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy through the
implementation of its provisions. They agreed to expedite US
firms` participation in the implementation of this agreement.
Stimulating global economic revival
Prime Minister Singh and President Obama noted the new
opportunities offered by their economies and their respective
strengths, and their potential for future growth to catalyse
global economic growth, and pledged to create conditions that
would facilitate their continued expansion.
The leaders also noted that the United States is
currently the largest trading partner of India in goods and
services. The leaders reiterated their pledge to bolster and
deepen cooperation on economic, trade and agricultural issues,
including working bilaterally and with multilateral trade
organisations to foster increased trade. Both leaders welcomed
the potential for further expanding trade and investment
between their countries, including in sectors such as
infrastructure, information and communication technologies,
healthcare services, education services, energy and
environmentally friendly technologies.
As members of the G 20, they agreed to advance the G 20
understandings including with regard to energy security and
resisting protectionism in all its forms. The two leaders
agreed to facilitate greater movement of professionals,
investors and business travellers, students, and exchange
visitors between our two countries to enhance their economic
and technological partnership.
They committed to strengthen and reform the global
economic and financial architecture in the G-20, World Bank
and the IMF. They resolved to seek an ambitious and balanced
outcome of the Doha Round, consistent with its mandate and
reaffirmed their commitment to an open, fair, equitable,
transparent and rule-based multilateral trading system.
The two leaders announced their intention to develop a
Framework for Cooperation on Trade and Investment. This
Framework is expected to foster an environment conducive to
technological innovation and collaboration, promote inclusive
growth and job creation, and support opportunities for
increased trade and investment - including for small and
medium-sized enterprises. They agreed to launch the U.S.-India
Financial and Economic Partnership to strengthen engagement on
economic, financial, and investment-related issues.
The two leaders welcomed the progress achieved in the
discussions on a Bilateral Investment Treaty and pledged to
take further initiatives that would contribute to creating a
more conducive environment for investment flows.
They recognised the contribution of the business and
industrial sectors of both countries in this regard and called
upon the India-US CEOs Forum to identify new directions in the
India-US economic relationship.
Educating and empowering future generations
Recognising the cultural emphasis on education in both
countries, Prime Minister Singh and President Obama emphasised
that education holds the key to the advancement of their
societies, and to a more prosperous and stable world.
They agreed that access to and development of technology
was a cross-cutting requirement to meet the challenges that
their two countries face. They acknowledged the fruitful
collaboration between the two countries in the fields of
education, research and science and technology, which has
contributed to their emergence as knowledge societies.
Taking advantage of that strength, President Obama and
Prime Minister Singh launched the Obama-Singh 21st Century
Knowledge Initiative with funding from both sides to increase
university linkages and junior faculty development exchanges
between US and Indian universities, including greater emphasis
on community colleges.
They agreed to substantially expand the Fulbright-Nehru
program to provide more student and scholar exchange grants in
priority fields such as science, technology and agriculture.
The two leaders reaffirmed the importance of expanding
cooperation in higher education and research, and according
priority to cooperation in the area of skill development.
They also expressed their support for the India-US
Binational Science and Technology Commission and the
Endowment, which is expected to give a fresh impetus to
collaboration in the cutting edge areas of scientific
research, technology and development.
The leaders affirmed the importance of women`s
empowerment to advancing global prosperity and stability, and
welcomed the establishment of a Women’s Empowerment Dialogue
to promote women’s participation and equality in all spheres.
They emphasised that women’s empowerment is a cross-cutting
goal that should be pursued across the full scope of US-India
Strategic Dialogue initiatives.
Prime Minister Singh and President Obama welcomed the
strong collaboration between India and the United States in
the area of public health. They agreed to build on existing
strong ties across academia and scientific communities by
advancing public health and biomedical research collaborations
between the United States and India.
The two countries plan to establish a Regional Global
Disease Detection Centre in India and to build a partnership
with the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention . The
leaders also pledged to enhance collaboration in controlling
diseases such as polio, and discovering new and affordable
technologies and treatments for the benefit of their peoples
and for those of other countries who seek their assistance.
Towards more effective global cooperation
Prime Minister Singh and President Obama recognised that
the India-US relationship is important for managing the
challenges the world will face in the 21st century.
The two leaders underscored the compelling need to put in
place global institutions which are both inclusive and
effective to meet present and future challenges. They welcomed
the emergence of the G-20 as a premier forum to deal with
international economic issues. The two leaders recognised the
scope for their countries to increase cooperation in
peacekeeping, development and the promotion of essential human
They committed themselves to achieving genuine reform of
the United Nations including in its Security Council in a
manner that reflects the contemporary realities of the 21st
century and thereby enhances its ability to carry out its
mandate as a representative, credible and effective forum for
meeting the challenges of the new century.
Prime Minister Singh thanked President Obama and the
people of the United States of America for their generous
hospitality and warm welcome. President Obama looks forward to
visiting India with his family in the near future.