New Delhi: Indian women continue to have a
raw deal compared to men when it comes to their earnings or
having their names on family bank accounts or on property
records, says a survey.
Women in rural areas earn nearly half of what men take
home, while over 80 per cent of them do not have their names
in family bank accounts, the Indian Human Development Survey
jointly conducted by the National Council of Applied Economic
Research (NCAER) and US-based University of Maryland said.
"For every rupee earned by a man, a rural woman earns
54 paise and an urban woman earns 68 paise... only 18 per cent
women have their names in family bank accounts," the survey
said reflecting a stark gender gap that continues even after
60 years of the Indian Constitution guaranteeing equality as a
As per home ownership documents, it said, only 15 per
cent women have their names on property records or rental
The survey, which saw participation of 41,000 households,
however, does suggest that the public sector is fairer to
women than the private sector with regard to salaries.
Noting that salaries at lower levels in the public sector
are better than in the private sector, it said, the difference
between the pay for men and women is much more in the latter.
"While women earn lower salary in both the public and
private sectors, the ratio of female to male salary is
considerably higher in the public sector than in the private
sector," it added.
According to the survey, the average salary for casual
workers is Rs 2,303 per month and Rs 4,640 for permanent
workers in the private sector compared to Rs 6,974 for public
The survey also reveals that persons belonging to higher
castes earn more than those coming from the lower strata of
"Forward caste and majority religion have the highest
income, while dalits and adivasi, have the lowest, and Muslim
and Other Backward Classes (OBC) fall in the middle," it