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Volcanic cataclysm 40k yrs ago in Italy may have triggered final demise of Neanderthals

 A new study has recently revealed that volcanic cataclysm 40,000 years ago in Italy may have triggered final demise of Neanderthals.



Washington: A new study has recently revealed that volcanic cataclysm 40,000 years ago in Italy may have triggered final demise of Neanderthals.

The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruption in Italy 40,000 years ago was one of the largest volcanic cataclysms in Europe and injected a significant amount of sulfur-dioxide (SO2) into the stratosphere. Scientists have long debated whether this eruption contributed to the final extinction of the Neanderthals.

This new study by Benjamin A. Black and colleagues tested this hypothesis with a sophisticated climate model.

Black and colleagues wrote that the CI eruption approximately coincided with the final decline of Neanderthals as well as with dramatic territorial and cultural advances among anatomically modern humans. Because of this, the roles of climate, hominin competition, and volcanic sulfur cooling and acid deposition have been vigorously debated as causes of Neanderthal extinction.

They pointed out, however, that the decline of Neanderthals in Europe began well before the CI eruption: "Radiocarbon dating has shown that at the time of the CI eruption, anatomically modern humans had already arrived in Europe, and the range of Neanderthals had steadily diminished. Work at five sites in the Mediterranean indicates that anatomically modern humans were established in these locations by then as well."

It was found that the largest temperature decreases after the eruption occurred in Eastern Europe and Asia and sidestepped the areas where the final Neanderthal populations were living (Western Europe). Therefore, the authors concluded that the eruption was probably insufficient to trigger Neanderthal extinction.

However, the abrupt cold spell that followed the eruption would still have significantly impacted day-to-day life for Neanderthals and early humans in Europe. Black and colleagues pointed out that temperature in Western Europe would have decreased by an average of 2 to 4 degrees Celsius during the year following the eruption.

These unusual conditions, they wrote, might have directly influenced survival and day-to-day life for Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans alike, and emphasize the resilience of anatomically modern humans in the face of abrupt and adverse changes in the environment.

From Zee News

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