With Afghans voting on Thursday in the country`s second presidential elections since the Taliban’s ouster in 2001, the poll`s outcome is hanging on the threat of violence and the clout of old warlords.
August 20 - Presidential Elections in Afghanistan amidst blasts
August 15 - The Taliban claims responsibility for a suicide car bomb that kills seven people and wounds about 100 outside the ISAF headquarters in Kabul, near the U.S. embassy.
July 27 - Britain announces the end of the five-week Operation "Panther`s Claw," the largest offensive by British forces since mid-2006, saying it had succeeded in driving militants out of population centers ahead of elections.
July 2 - U.S. Marines launch assault in lower Helmand river valley in southern Afghanistan.
June 15 - U.S. General Stanley McChrystal assumes command of international troops in Afghanistan.
May 11 - Top U.S. and NATO commander in Afghanistan General David McKiernan is fired by Obama. His exit signals a shift from a conventional strategy to a counter-insurgency plan, aimed at reducing civilian deaths.
March 29 - Karzai announces he will stay in office after his term officially ends on May 21 until elections are held in August. He later says he`ll run for re-election.
March 27 - Obama announces plans to send a further 4,000 U.S. troops to train Afghan security forces, along with civilian personnel to improve delivery of basic services.
February 17 - New U.S. President Barack Obama orders 17,000 more U.S. troops to tackle an intensifying insurgency.
January 27 - Thousands of U.S. troops move into two key provinces in east Afghanistan as part of strategy of outgoing U.S. President George W. Bush`s administration.
December 5, 2008 - Karzai and new Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari pledge to boost cooperation and agree a joint strategy to fight al Qaeda and other militants along their shared border.
August 19 - Suspected Taliban insurgents kill 10 French troops and wound 21 in ambush east of the capital, the biggest single loss of foreign forces in combat in Afghanistan since 2001.
July 7 - Suicide car bomb hits Indian embassy in Kabul, killing 41 people.
June 12- Donors pledge about $20 billion in aid at a Paris conference, but say Kabul must do more to fight corruption.
March 2, 2007 - Pakistani security forces capture Mullah Obaidullah Akhund, the Taliban`s third most senior leader, in Quetta.
October 5 - NATO`s International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) assumes responsibility for security in all of Afghanistan.
July 30 - NATO forces take control of security in the south, moving from Kabul and the safer north and west.
January 31, 2006 - Afghanistan receives pledges of $10.5 billion to help it fight poverty and the drug trade and improve security.
September 18, 2005 - Elections for lower house of parliament and provincial councils. Parliament sits for first time on December 19.
October 9, 2004 - Presidential election. Karzai declared winner and sworn in on December 7.
June 19, 2002 - Karzai sworn in as president for 18 months.
December 5 - Afghan groups sign deal in Bonn on interim government headed by ethnic Pashtun tribal leader Hamid Karzai.
November 13 - Anti-Taliban Northern Alliance forces enter Kabul.
October 7, 2001 - U.S. and British planes begin bombing to root out al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden and his Taliban protectors.