Dead star with super-strong magnetic field discovered
Washington: Scientists have discovered that a curious dead star has been hiding one of the strongest magnetic fields in the Universe all along.
The object, known as SGR 0418+5729 (or SGR 0418 for short), is a magnetar, a particular kind of neutron star.
A neutron star is the dead core of a once massive star that collapsed in on itself after burning up all its fuel and exploding in a dramatic supernova event. They are extraordinarily dense objects, packing more than the mass of our Sun into a sphere only some 20 km across - about the size of a city.
A small proportion of neutron stars form and live briefly as magnetars, named for their extremely intense magnetic fields, billions to trillions of times greater than those generated in hospital MRI machines, for example.
These fields cause magnetars to erupt sporadically with bursts of high-energy radiation.
SGR 0418 lies in our galaxy, about 6500 light years from Earth.
It was first detected in June 2009 by space telescopes including NASA`s Fermi and Roscosmos` Koronas-Photon when it suddenly lit up in X-rays and soft gamma rays. It has been studied subsequently by a fleet of observatories, including ESA`s XMM-Newton space telescope.
"Until very recently, all indications were that this magnetar had one of the weakest surface magnetic fields known; at 6 x 1012 Gauss, it was roughly a 100 times lower than for typical magnetars," Andrea Tiengo of the Istituto Universitario di Studi Superiori, Pavia, Italy, and lead author of the paper, said.
"Understanding these results was a challenge. However, we suspected that SGR 0418 was in fact hiding a much stronger magnetic field, out of reach of our usual analytical techniques," she said.
Magnetars spin more slowly than neutron stars, but still complete a rotation within a few seconds. The normal way of determining the magnetic field of a magnetar is to measure the rate at which the spin is declining.
Three years of observations of SGR 0418 had led astronomers to infer a weak magnetic field.
The new technique developed by Dr Tiengo and his collaborators involves searching for variations in the X-ray spectrum of the magnetar over extremely short time intervals as it rotates.
This method allows astronomers to analyse the magnetic field in much more detail and has revealed SGR 0418 as a true magnetic monster.
The findings are published in the journal Nature.
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