No ``safe haven`` for organic molecules on Mars
The atmosphere on Mars is not favourable for organic compounds such as proteins, concluded a new study.
Washington: The atmosphere on Mars is not favourable for organic compounds such as proteins, concluded a new study.
For a long time, absence of organic compounds such as proteins in Martian soil remains a mystery.
But, researchers have now proposed a new theory to explain what happens to these carbon-based molecules.
"There may be no ``safe haven`` for these organic molecules on Mars," concluded Ilya Shkrob, Sergey Chemerisov, and Timothy Marin, from Argonne National Laboratory and Benedictine University, in Illinois.
Unlike on Earth, where plants and other organisms convert carbon dioxide and water into organic compounds via photosynthesis, the authors propose that the opposite happens on the surface of Mars.
The iron oxides that make up Martian soil and give the planet its distinctive red color are photocatalysts.
They use energy from ultraviolet light absorbed through the thin Martian atmosphere to oxidize carbon-containing organic molecules trapped in soil particles, converting them to carbon dioxide and gases such as methane.
The authors present study data to support this model and to explain why it might not be realistic to rely on the discovery of proteins, amino acids, and other carbon-containing compounds in the upper soil layers of Mars to determine whether life forms are or have been present on the planet.
"This is an interesting result and may be an important step in solving the enduring mystery of organics on Mars," said Christopher P. McKay, Senior Editor of Astrobiology and Research Scientist at NASA Ames Research Center.
"We see organics in many places in the solar system but have not been able to detect them on Mars—the planet that we think had the most Earth-like conditions. Why? Could it be our instrument approach has been wrong? Or could it be that there is some chemistry on Mars that is actively destroying organics? This work points toward this latter explanation. Mars may have a self cleaning surface. If so, we may have to dig deeply to find any organic materials,” he added.
"The importance of drilling below the Martian surface for rocks and soils that might retain preserved organics is certainly on the minds of future mission scientists," said Dr. Sherry L. Cady, Editor of Astrobiology.
The study is published in Astrobiology, a peer-reviewed journal published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.