Moscow: The new energy module of the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS), which will be launched before 2015, will operate a medical and biological laboratory - a prototype of the prospective lunar laboratory, a top Russian official has said.
"Medical and biological support is one of the key five problems in the exploration of the far space.
So, we will create a medical and biological laboratory at the energy module of the ISS to become a prototype of the prospective laboratory of a lunar base," Director of the Institute of the Medical and Biological Problems Igor Ushakov said at the Space Forum 2011 yesterday.
Manned missions to the circumterrestrial orbit, which were fulfilled in the past 50 years, laid down prerequisites for the future flights to the far space, Ushakov said.
"Medical and biological support to such missions will be developed within the next decade to cut the possible risks," he said.
There are five main groups of risks related to far space missions, among them emergency situations, risks to human organisms under the micro-gravity conditions, risks related to the change in the artificial habitat (such as temperatures, chemical makeup and other fluctuations plus infections], radiation and psycho-physiological risks, he said.
All these factors will lead to psycho-biological stress of crew members, which must be prevented, he said.
The risks during flights of up to one year will stand at 7%, so it is necessary to develop methods of the protection of humans and hardware in advance, Ushakov said.
A number of important problems must be solved before sending manned missions to other planets and asteroids, deputy head of the Cosmonaut Training Center Boris Kryuchkov said at the conference.
First of all, it is necessary to develop a new concept of the selection of astronauts and the provision of flight safety.
It is also necessary to create a new infrastructure of spaceships, including greenhouses, which will supply astronauts with full-value food rations, and to develop methods of astronauts` rehabilitation after long space missions, he said.
Lunar bases are the question of the medium-term future. New data about the Moon may help create lunar bases, head of the Cosmonaut Training Center Sergei Krikalyov said at the Space Forum 2011.