Washington: US wars launched since the
attacks of September 11, 2001 have left 225,000 dead and cost
up to USD 4.4 trillion, according to a new study by university
The study published by Brown University this week focused
on the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan and counter-terrorism
campaigns in Pakistan and Yemen, which came in the wake of the
9/11 attacks on the United States.
The authors argued that governments almost always go to
war underestimating the potential duration and costs of a
conflict while overestimating "the political objectives that
can be accomplished by the use of brute force."
The study said "an extremely conservative estimate" of
the casualty toll was about 225,000 people killed and 365,000
wounded in the wars so far.
The number of soldiers killed comes to 31,741, including
about 6,000 Americans, 1,200 allied troops, 9,900 Iraqis,
8,800 Afghans, 3,500 Pakistanis as well as 2,300 US private
security contractors, it said.
The civilian toll was much higher, with an estimated
172,000 dead, including about 125,000 Iraqis, 35,000
Pakistanis and 12,000 Afghans, it said.
The study acknowledged that estimating the number of dead
was difficult, particularly the toll for insurgents, putting
the number at between 20,000 to 51,000 insurgents killed.
The report found that 168 reporters and 266 humanitarian
workers were among the dead since the United States launched
its "war on terror" after 9/11.
The wars also have triggered a massive flow of refugees
and displaced persons, with more than 7.8 million displaced,
mostly in Iraq and Afghanistan, it said.
The study estimated the financial cost of the wars at a
minimum of USD 3.7 trillion and up to USD 4.4 trillion, which
represents about a quarter of the country`s current debt.