Steve Jobs' journey at Apple
Steve Jobs, the visionary co-founder of Apple who led a mobile-computing revolution with wildly popular devices such as the iPhone, is no more. He was 56.
Jobs had been struggling with pancreatic cancer. He underwent a successful surgery in 2004 and a liver transplantation in 2008.
Steve Jobs was one of the greatest examples of success in the history of American business. He dropped out of college after one year, and never received a degree in technology. This future Apple CEO earned his living by collecting empty bottles before he started working at a company that produced video games.
Here are some key dates from his life and work:
1955: Stephen Paul Jobs is born on February 24.
1972: Jobs enrolls in Reed College in Portland, Ore. but drops out after a semester.
1974: Jobs works for video game maker Atari and attends meetings of the Homebrew Computer Club with Steve Wozniak, a high school friend who was a few years older.
1976: Apple Computer is formed on April Fools' Day, shortly after Wozniak and Jobs create a new computer circuit board in a Silicon Valley garage. The Apple I computer goes on sale by the summer for $666.66.
1977: Apple is incorporated by its founders and a group of venture capitalists. It unveils Apple II, the first personal computer to generate color graphics. Sales soar to the rate of $1 million a year.
1978: Jobs' daughter Lisa is born to girlfriend Chrisann Brennan.
1979: Jobs visits Xerox PARC and is inspired by a computer with a graphical user interface.
1980: Apple goes public, raising $110 million in one of the biggest initial public offerings to date.
1982: Annual sales climb to $1 billion.
1983: The Lisa computer goes on sale with much fanfare, only to be pulled two years later. Steve Jobs lures John Sculley away from Pepsico Inc. to serve as Apple's CEO.
1984: Iconic "1984" Macintosh commercial directed by Ridley Scott shows during the Super Bowl. The Macintosh computer goes on sale.
1985: Jobs and Sculley clash, leading to Jobs' resignation. Wozniak also resigns from Apple.
1986: Jobs founds Next Inc., a new computer company making high-end machines for universities. He also buys Pixar from "Star Wars" creator George Lucas for $10 million.
1989: First NeXT computer goes on sale with a $6,500 price tag.
1991: Apple and IBM Corp. announce an alliance to develop new PC microprocessors and software. Apple unveils PowerBook portable Macintoshes.
1993: Apple introduces the Newton, a hand-held, pen-based computer. The company reports quarterly loss of $188 million in July, and CEO Sculley is replaced by Apple president Michael Spindler. Apple restructures and Sculley resigns as chairman. At Next, Jobs decides to focus on software instead of whole computers.
1994: Apple introduces Power Macintosh computers based on the PowerPC chip it developed with IBM and Motorola. Apple decides to license its operating software, allowing other companies to clone the Mac.
1995: The first Mac clones go on sale. Microsoft Corp. releases Windows 95, which is easier to use and more like the Macintosh. Apple struggles with competition, parts shortages and mistakes predicting customer demand. Pixar's "Toy Story," the first commercial computer-animated feature, hits theaters and Pixar goes to Wall Street with an IPO that raises $140 million.
1996: Apple buys Next for $430 million, for the operating system Jobs' team developed. Gil Amelio replaces Spindler as CEO.
1997: Steve Jobs returns to Apple as an adviser, then appointed "interim" CEO after Amelio is pushed out. Jobs puts an end to Mac clones.
1998: Apple returns to profitability and unveils the iMac, a blue-and-white computer and monitor in one that set Apple on the path to its comeback. Apple also discontinues the Newton.
2000: Apple removes "interim" label from Jobs' CEO title.
2001: The first iPod goes on sale, as do computers with OS X, the modern Mac operating system based on Next software.
2003: Apple launches the iTunes music store with 200,000 songs at 99 cents each, giving people a convenient way to buy music legally online. It sells 1 million songs in the first week.
2004: Jobs undergoes surgery for a rare but curable form of pancreatic cancer. Apple discloses his illness after the fact.
2005: Apple expands the iPod line with the tiny Nano and an iPod that can play video. The company also announces that future Macs will use Intel chips.
2006: Disney buys Pixar for $7.4 billion. Jobs becomes Disney's largest individual shareholder, and much of his wealth is derived from this sale.
2007: Apple releases its first smartphone, the iPhone. Crowds camp overnight at stores to be one of the first to own the new device.
2008: Speculation mounts that Jobs is ill, given his weight loss. In September he kicks off an Apple event and says, "The reports of my death are greatly exaggerated," making a play off a famous Mark Twain quote after Bloomberg News accidentally publishes, then retracts, an obituary that it had prepared in advance.
2009: Jobs explains severe weight loss by saying he has a treatable hormone imbalance and that he will continue to run Apple. Days later he backtracks and announces he will be on medical leave. He returns to work in June. Later it is learned that he received a liver transplant.
2010: Apple sells 15 million iPads, its newest gadget, in nine months, giving rise to a new category of modern touch-screen tablet computers.
January 17, 2011: In a memo to Apple employees, Jobs announces a second medical leave with no set duration. Chief Operating Officer Tim Cook will fill in to run day-to-day operations. Jobs said he will continue as CEO and will be involved in major decisions.
August 24, 2011: Apple announces that Jobs is resigning as CEO. The company says he will be replaced by Cook and that Jobs will stay on as chairman.
October 5, 2011: Steve Jobs, the visionary co-founder of Apple who revolutionised the world of technology, dies aged 56 after prolonged battle with cancer.