Why Tibetan antelopes can survive in high altitudes
Washington: Researchers from Qinghai University, BGI, and other institutes have provided evidence that some genetic factors may be associated with the Tibetan antelope's adaption to harsh highland environments.
The data in this work will also provide implications for studying specific genetic mechanisms and the biology of other ruminant species.
The Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) is a native of the high mountain steppes and semi-desert areas of the Tibetan plateau.
Interestingly, it is the only member of the genus Pantholops. Tibetan antelope is a medium sized antelope with the unique adaptations to against the harsh high-altitude climate.
For non-native mammals such as humans, they may experience life-threatening acute mountain sickness when visiting high-altitude regions.
In this study, researchers suggest that Tibetan antelopes must have evolved exceptional mechanisms to adapt to this extremely inhospitable habitat.
Using next-generation sequencing technology, they have decoded the genome of Tibetan antelope and studied the underlying genetic mechanism of high-altitude adaptations.
Through the comparison between Tibetan antelope and other plain-dwelling mammals, researchers found that the Tibetan antelope had the signals of adaptive evolution and gene-family expansion in genes associated with energy metabolism and oxygen transmission, indicating that gene categories involved in energy metabolism appear to have an important role for Tibetan antelope via efficiently providing energy in conditions of low partial pressure of oxygen (PO2).
Further research revealed that both the Tibetan antelope and the highland American pika have signals of positive selection for genes involved in DNA repair and the production of ATPase.
The research has been published in Nature Communications.