Immunisation day is dedicated to make people aware about different vaccines effective in different diseases. Measles, mumps, tuberculosis are some diseases which attack the child in his childhood. Therefore in this day different immunisation programs are established in order to create awareness among people about diseases, their causes, vaccines their effects and proper recovery methods.
Ironically, India’s Immunization Program is one of the largest in the world in terms of quantities of vaccines used, number of beneficiaries, and the number of immunization sessions organized considering the diversity and the geographical spread of the country.
Child immunization is the act of preventing childhood diseases such as diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, poliomyelitis, typhoid and childhood tuberculosis, measles, chicken pox and small pox by giving chemical substances at a reduced viral state. Most immunizations can be given either through an injection or orally.
What is immunisation?
Immunisation is a shield that protects children, young people and the elderly from different diseases. Different injections and vaccines increase the body immunity that reacts with diseases like measles, mumps, influenza, hepatitis which can create complication in body and sometimes results to death.
Immunisation is given through injection. It is termed as vaccination and when given through orally is termed as polio.
Some of the vaccination described below can protect children from such diseases:-
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacteria ‘Mycobacterium tuberculosis’ claims approximately 2 million lives a year. The figure would rise to 3 million if the list includes HIV positive individuals who die with active TB. It is a disease caused mainly by bacteria affecting the lungs.
When a person inhales air having infected bacteria, he gets infected with TB. Earlier, people mainly suffered with this disease because there was no proper vaccine available. But now, the BCG vaccine is recommended in the prevention of primary tuberculosis, especially to prevent the most serious manifestations of the disease.
Measles/ Mumps Vaccination
Measles and Mumps are caused by virus causing small pox all over the body. The MMR vaccine is made for this disease. It requires proper vaccination, as it is said that prevention is better than cure.
The MMR vaccine is an immunization shot against measles, mumps, and rubella (also called German measles). It was first developed by Maurice Hilleman while at Merck in the late 1960s. The vaccine is a mixture of three live attenuated viruses, administered via injection. The shot is generally administered to children around the age of one year, with a second dose at the age of 4-5.
This is a viral continagious disease effecting the lungs and wind pipes. It spreads when a person comes in contact with person suffering from this disease. This flu attacks the person as the body does not have enough resistance to fight the disease. Therefore FLU SHOT vaccine is given to protect the body from infectious disease and another to increase the immunity or resistance to safeguard the body from this disease.
Poliomyelitis or Polio is a viral disease that can affect nerves and can lead to partial or full paralysis. It can strike at any age, but affects mainly children under three. Polio is mainly passed through person-to-person (i.e., fecal-oral) contact, and infects those who do not have immunity against the disease. There is no cure for polio, but the disease can be prevented by immunization with polio vaccine.
Oral polio vaccine (OPV) was developed in 1961 by Dr Albert Sabin; OPV is a highly effective, safe and inexpensive vaccine, and has been used in all countries of the world to achieve polio eradication. It spreads in unhealthy, dirty and crowded places mainly in developing countries. In India every month polio booths and camps are established to eradicate this disease.
Tetanus is also called as lockjaw and is caused by ‘Clostridium tetanii’ commonly found in soil. Four main forms of the tetanus vaccine are available. Individuals who receive a minimum of 3 injections of tetanus-containing vaccine will be protected against the disorder for at least 10 years.
The 3 in 1 DTP vaccine prevents against Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus while the 2 in 1 form protects against Diphtheria and Tetanus. Tetanus Toxoid and Tetanus Antitoxin are the other two most commonly used forms.
Hepatitis B Vaccination
Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin provides immediate passive immunity for individuals following acute exposure to HbsAg positive blood or blood derivatives. It is indicated in the routine vaccination schedule for all infants, children and adolescents. High risk category include sexually active individuals, homosexuals, persons traveling to countries with high incidence rate of Hepatitis B, intravenous drug users, persons who deal with blood and blood products, patients with chronic renal failure on dialysis.
Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by the enterotoxin subunit-A of Vibrio cholerae. Cholera is a water-borne infection caught through ingestion of faecally contaminated water or shellfish. It spreads from person-to-person spread via the faeco-oral route can also occur. Cholera is prevalent in areas with poor sanitation and food and water hygiene and constitutes a major global public health problem.
The cholera vaccine is given in two doses and generally provides protection for 3 years. The cholera vaccine is not 100% effective so travellers should take care at all times when consuming food and water in high risk areas.
Typhoid (typhoid fever) is a serious disease. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid causes a high fever, weakness, stomach pains, headache, loss of appetite, and sometimes a rash. If it is not treated, it can kill up to 30% of people who get it. Some people who get typhoid become ``carriers,`` who can spread the disease to others. Generally, people get typhoid from contaminated food or water.
There are two vaccines to prevent typhoid. One is an inactivated (killed) vaccine gotten as a shot, and the other is live, attenuated (weakened) vaccine which is taken orally (by mouth). The name of the vaccine is ‘Typherix’. This vaccine contains the cell surface Vi polysaccharide extracted from Salmonella typhi Ty2 strain as a single 0.5 ml dose in a prefilled syringe.
Rabies is a zoonotic disease (a disease that is transmitted to humans from animals) that is caused by a virus. The disease infects domestic and wild animals, and is spread to people through close contact with infected saliva via bites or scratches. The virus travels from the wound to the brain, where it causes swelling, or inflammation. This inflammation leads to symptoms of the disease. Most rabies deaths occur in children.
Two types of vaccines to protect against rabies in humans exist - nerve tissue and cell culture vaccines. WHO recommends replacement of nerve tissue vaccines with the more efficacious, safer vaccines developed through cell culture as soon as possible. Cell culture vaccines which are more affordable and require less vaccine have been developed in recent years.