The Dane lost control of his car as he crested the fast uphill sweep of the Eau Rouge corner and slammed violently into the barriers.
Triple world champion Hamilton, who has a 19-point cushion over team mate Nico Rosberg at the top of the drivers` standings, appeared relaxed though.
It was Rosberg`s fifth pole this season and the 28th of his career - and gives him a great chance to reduce, or even overhaul, Hamilton`s 19-point lead in the drivers` title race.
The 18-year-old Red Bull driver clocked a best lap of one minute and 48.085 seconds.
"For me, it`s probably the best team I`ve been with in my career.
The three-time world champion leads this year`s title race by 19 points from team-mate Nico Rosberg.
Crutchlow is the first Briton to win an elite-class Grand Prix since Barry Sheene in 1981.
The 23-year-old Spanish Honda rider set a new record on the Brno circuit with 1min 54.596sec to take his fifth pole position of the season.
Schumacher, who holds the record of seven Formula One titles and 91 race wins between 1991 and 2006,suffered from head injuries while skiing during a French Alps vacation in 2013.
NASCAR Xfinity Series driver Derrike Cope surivived a horrific car explosion in the Zippo 200 at Watkins Glen International, at Watkins Glen International on Sunday morning.
A demand for a 168-million-euro ransom, which was made to the family through e-mail was not been paid.
Lewis Hamilton, who won the race with ease today, led the standings with 217 points ahead of his Mercedes team-mate Nico Rosberg (198).
Home hero Rosberg surrendered his lead from pole with a dreadful start to the Briton, who stormed away to claim his sixth win in seven races and strengthen his grip in the title chase.
Rosberg clocked a startling best lap of one minute and 14.323 seconds to outpace the defending three-time champion by 0.123 seconds.
The McLaren Honda driver was sent to hospital by the circuit medical centre at the Hockenheimring after complaining of an eye irritation.
It has been a memorable Test match. It has been very good right from the second day onwards when New Zealand were batting really well and me and Ashwin were chatting that it is going to be an exciting Test.