QuickSplain: What Is Israel-Palestine Conflict? (3 Min Read)

During the late 19th century, Jewish immigration to Palestine, then part of the Ottoman Empire, increased.

QuickSplain: What Is Israel-Palestine Conflict? (3 Min Read)

Historical Background

The Israel-Palestine conflict is a protracted and deeply entrenched geopolitical dispute with its origins dating back to the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It primarily revolves around competing national aspirations and territorial claims by Israelis and Palestinians.

Pre-1948 Tensions

During the late 19th century, Jewish immigration to Palestine, then part of the Ottoman Empire, increased. After World War I, the League of Nations granted Britain a mandate over Palestine, leading to further Jewish immigration. Tensions mounted as both Jewish and Arab communities sought self-determination.

1947 UN Partition Plan

In 1947, the United Nations proposed a plan to partition Palestine into separate Jewish and Arab states, with Jerusalem as an international city. While Jewish leaders accepted this plan, Arab states rejected it, resulting in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Israel declared independence, and neighboring Arab nations invaded, leading to Israel's establishment and the displacement of numerous Palestinians.

Ongoing Conflicts and Occupations

Subsequent conflicts, including the Six-Day War in 1967 and the Yom Kippur War in 1973, further escalated tensions. Israel's occupation of the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem during the Six-Day War added complexity to the dispute, resulting in a prolonged military occupation.

Core Issues

The Israel-Palestine conflict encompasses several core issues, including borders, the status of Jerusalem, the fate of Palestinian refugees, security concerns, and the establishment of a Palestinian state. These issues have been central to numerous peace initiatives, negotiations, and agreements.

Failed Peace Efforts

Various peace efforts, such as the Oslo Accords in the 1990s, aimed at resolving the conflict, but achieving a final resolution has proven elusive.

Cycles of Violence

The conflict has resulted in cycles of violence, including Intifadas (Palestinian uprisings) and periodic military confrontations, causing immense human suffering.

International Dimensions

The Israel-Palestine conflict has broader regional and international implications, with various countries and organizations involved in diplomatic efforts and supporting different sides.

Challenges to Resolution

Despite decades of negotiations, the Israel-Palestine conflict remains unresolved, requiring compromise, sustained dialogue, and international cooperation to achieve a lasting and just peace in the region.

How War Started In October 

Unexpectedly, tensions between Israel and Palestine escalated significantly on October 7 when Hamas, a Palestinian militant group in control of the densely populated Gaza Strip along Israel's border, launched an unprecedented attack on Israel. This attack tragically resulted in the deaths of at least 700 Israelis, and there are concerns that the death toll may rise further as reported. Israeli forces are currently engaged in confrontations with militants who have taken refuge in various locations.
In response to this attack, Israel initiated retaliatory airstrikes on the Gaza Strip, declaring a state of war against Hamas and pledging to dismantle the "military and governing capabilities" of the group's leadership in the enclave. Unfortunately, these retaliatory actions have led to the loss of more than 400 Palestinian lives. Israeli troops have been actively involved in efforts to dislodge Gaza gunmen from areas in southern Israel, while Palestinian militant groups claim to be holding over 130 Israeli captives. The situation remains fluid and volatile, with significant humanitarian and geopolitical implications.