Washington: Returning to power in 1980, the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had considered a military strike on Pakistan's nuclear installations to prevent it from acquiring weapons capabilities, a declassified CIA document has claimed.
According to a report published in 'The Times of India' on Wednesday, such a consideration by the then Indian Prime Minister was being made when the US was in an advanced stage of providing its fighter jets F-16 to Pakistan, says the September 8, 1981, document titled 'India's Reaction to Nuclear Developments in Pakistan', which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
A redacted version of the 12-page document was posted on the CIA website in June this year, according to which the then Indian government led by Gandhi in 1981 was concerned about the progress made by Pakistan on its nuclear weapons programme and believed that Islamabad was steps away from acquiring a nuclear weapon. The US had the same assessment.
"In the extreme case, if Indian concerns increase over the next two or three months, we believe the conditions could be ripe for a decision by Prime Minister Gandhi to instigate a military confrontation with Pakistan, primarily to provide a framework for destroying Pakistan's nuclear facilities," the then highly sensitive CIA report claimed.
According to the report, as Pakistan was in an advanced stage of producing plutonium and highly enriched uranium for use in nuclear weapons, Gandhi evidently responded to the threat by authorising Indian nuclear test preparations.
"In February (1981), excavation was begun in the Thar desert to permit the underground explosion of an Indian test device on short notice," the CIA said, adding that in May, preparations had been completed by India for a 40-kiloton nuclear test.
The CIA said India reportedly was to explode the device about one week after the expected Pakistani test.
"Evidently, the Indian Government calculated that a Pakistani nuclear explosion per se would not constitute a national security threat, and that the damage to India's image of pre-eminence in the region could be minimised by a resumption of the peaceful nuclear explosive (PNE) programme," the CIA said.
"Prime Minister Gandhi probably has not made a decision to exercise a military option against Pakistan. In the extreme case, if India's concern about deliveries of F-16s to Pakistan increases before the optimum time for exercising the military option (in October or November according to one report), the conditions could be ripe for Prime Minister Gandhi to carry out the contingency strike plan," it said.
"Our best estimate, however, is that India will follow a wait and see strategy," the report added.
However, the option to hit Pakistan's nukes sites were curtailed by Raja Ramanna, who is regarded as the father of the Indian nuclear bomb.
Ramanna, as per ToI, had himself confirmed this on two occasions in private conversations after his retirement as chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1987. He passed away in Mumbai on September 24, 2004.
The report said though Ramanna had declined to go into specifics, he had recalled that in 1983, when he was in Vienna to attend an International Atomic Energy Agency meet, he was "warned" by ex-chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Munir Ahmed Khan that if India hit its nuclear facilities, Pakistan would launch a retaliatory strike at BARC, Trombay, in Mumbai, the heart of India's nuclear weapons programme.
Ramanna immediately informed Indira about the dangerous consequences of bombing Pakistan's nuclear establishment and the operation was stopped.